How to use these recipes

Each recipe gives

  • a grain bill as percentages
  • original gravity
  • amount of grain needed per litre of beer, two different amounts are given based on two different mash efficiencies - more below
  • suggestions for bitterness, hop variety and yeast

Mash extraction is expressed as LDK, litres degrees kilograms. 200 LDK means 1 kilogram of malt would give a gravity of 1200 in one litre. More realistically it would mean 4 litres at 1050, or 5 litres at 1040. It equates to a mash efficiency of 65%. This is at the low end of the scale. Work with this figure for brew-in-a-bag, or small set-ups. For larger and more sophisticated set-ups, eg 3 vessel systems, work at 240 LDK which is 77% efficiency.

240 and 200 are both quite conservative LDK estimates. Real world figures are more like 250 and 210. You can calculate your own LDK numbers and use them to calculate how much grain you need.

More information about LDK and how to use this measurement is found here.

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American Pale Ale (per 100 grams)

Medium crystal malt 7%Munich malt 13%Ale malt 80%Original gravity 1050At 240 LDK (77% mash efficienc..


Bohemian Pilsner (per 100 grams)

Acid malt 1%Carapils 4%Munich malt 10%Pilsner malt 85%Original gravity 1046 - 48, finishing gravity ..


Bohemian Pilsner 2 (per 100 grams)

Acid malt 1%Melanoidin malt 2%Weyermann (Ger) Pilsner malt 97%Original gravity 1046 - 48, finishing ..