How to use these recipes
Each recipe gives
- a grain bill as percentages
- original gravity
- amount of grain needed per litre of beer, two different amounts are given based on two different mash efficiencies - more below
- suggestions for bitterness, hop variety and yeast
Mash extraction is expressed as LDK, litres degrees kilograms. 200 LDK means 1 kilogram of malt would give a gravity of 1200 in one litre. More realistically it would mean 4 litres at 1050, or 5 litres at 1040. It equates to a mash efficiency of 65%. This is at the low end of the scale. Work with this figure for brew-in-a-bag, or small set-ups. For larger and more sophisticated set-ups, eg 3 vessel systems, work at 240 LDK which is 77% efficiency.
240 and 200 are both quite conservative LDK estimates. Real world figures are more like 250 and 210. You can calculate your own LDK numbers and use them to calculate how much grain you need.